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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Methodological challenges make physiological affective observations very restrictive as in many cases they take place in a laboratory setting rather than the animals' natural habitat. In the current study using Infrared Thermal Imaging we examine the physiological thermal imprints of five macaques. The monkeys were exposed in three different experimental scenarios.

Playing with a toy, food teasing as well as feeding. It was observed that during teasing the temperature of the region surrounding the eyes was higher than play as a result of rapid saccades directed at the food. Compared to play and teasing, a lower temperature accompanied feeding on the upper lip, nose and orbital region suggesting elevated levels of distress.

These findings prove that thermal imaging is a reliable method of physiological monitoring the subject at a distance while preserving a semi-experimental setting. Emotional experiences are tuned by the autonomic nervous system ANS preparing us to face a plethora of environmental challenges Levenson, Hair erection, vascular constriction, perspiration, heart rate, respiration as well as the inhibition of the digestive tract have their own biological function in survival Porges, Each emotion is driven by characteristic physiological elements and in the majority of cases conscious awareness of the somatic sensation gives feedback for avoidance or engagement Damasio, Autonomic excitation precedes behavioral engagement and by cognitively evaluating the situation in which the physiological episode arose; descriptive labels are commonly attributed to the felt emotion Schachter and Singer, ; Dutton and Aron, Although in humans a somatosensory distinction between the different types of emotion exists Nummenmaa et al.

Conventional physiological measurements limit the way biological data is collected since they require restriction of the subject's movement Nakayama et al. Direct contact with the body limits the nature of the experimental paradigm and the use of temperature sensors on the skin is not an option as they get detached through contact, cover a small surface area and pressure on the skin can induce changes to regional blood flow affecting physiological recordings Nakayama et al.

Functional Infrared Thermal Imaging fITI is a highly sensitive and versatile technique that converts infrared light into temperature allowing wireless monitoring of the participant Ring and Ammer, So far the non-human primate studies that used thermal imaging used stress-inducing experimental paradigms. Nakayama et al. In addition, transient increases in temperature at the peri-orbital region were also recorded, although inconsistent among subjects Nakayama et al.

Eye temperature increases have been observed in cows during stress Stewart et al. In another study involving macaques, subjects exposed to videos with aggressive threats or screams showed a temperature decrease on the nose. Electrophysiological recording that used the same threatening stimuli demonstrated increased neuronal activity in the monkey's amygdala. Similar on the nose tip have been obtained in humans in negative emotional states Ioannou et al. Although the above non-human primate studies represent a first step toward understanding facial skin temperatures in species closely related to humans, they hardly represent a naturalistic experimental setting.

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The current study was set to examine with fITI how macaques react to playing, teasing and feeding while retaining a semi-experimental setting. Unlike studies in thermal physiology, temperature extraction was based on four different facial regions of interest the nose bridge and tip, the maxillary area and the peri-orbital region.

The main comparison of the current study was between teasing negativeplay positiveand feeding. These experimental aim at eliciting physiological changes that reflect the two competing subdivisions of the ANS the sympathetic food teasing and para-sympathetic play and feeding.

It is important to note however, that a true comparison between the opposing subdivision of the ANS hardly exists as empirical evidence show that the parasympathetic nervous system plays a role in both pleasant and unpleasant emotions Kreibig,p. Thus, with the current experimental conditions we aim to create with the chosen experimental conditions adequate physiological contrast to describe the directionality of the thermal change and explore the plausibility of harnessing thermal prints from non-restrained subjects. Thus, it is expected that teasing will lead to elevated temperature patterns on the peri-orbital region, as the supraorbital branch that innervates the forehead and the superior palpebral branch are thermally coherent Pavlidis et al.

On the other hand playing with a toy aimed at arousing feelings of amusement or happiness in the subjects. In contrary to autonomic arousal during a feeding episode the 10th cranial nerve that controls the heart also innervates sub-diaphragmatic visceral organs relaxing the gut in order to promote digestive processes. This system which has been also named dorsal vagal complex Porges, is associated with bradycardia and vasodilation thus one would expect during this phase for temperature on the face to rise.

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Lastly behavioral analysis was also conducted to ensure that temperature changes for each experimental condition did not result from the subjects' movement. Observed temperature changes throughout the conditions would suggest that animals could be physiologically monitored from a distance with fITI providing new insights in biological research. The aim of this study and the current article is to pave the way for a new promising experimental method in the field of behavioral neuroscience. Subjects were five rhesus macaques, 3 males 1 juvenile and 2 adultsand 2 females 1 juvenile and 1 adult at the Owl and Monkey Haven Isle of Wight, UK.

Together they represented one social group, living in an outdoor enclosure during the day and in an indoor enclosure during the night. The outdoor enclosure contained climbing structures, ropes, plastics bowls and the ground was covered with small stones.

The macaques were fed at 8 a. Play, teasing, and feeding sessions were induced. For play, the experimenter presented a toy a baby rattle, a cuddly toy, or a doll purse to the subject and performed playful up-and-down movements to evoke play responses. If a subject did not respond to a particular toy, another was presented.

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For teasing, the experimenter held food mealworm or cricket and moved the food slowly toward the subject and quickly backs behind the mesh, so that the subject could not reach it. For feeding, the experimenter gave the subject one mealworm or cricket. Throughout the testing, the experimenter drew the attention of only one subject at a time and made it stay close to the mesh throughout the test.

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However, despite this step, others individuals were present next to the subject during 14 play sessions and 16 teasing as well as feeding sessions. Illustration of the three experimental session and the behaviors that were exhibited by the subjects A Playing B Teasing with food C Feeding. Each play and teasing session was aimed to last 60 s; some sessions lasted shorter minimum of 15 swhen a subject lost interest earlier or when another macaque interfered.

Furthermore, teasing was stopped as soon as the subject showed s of being upset e.

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Play sessions lasted longer up to 4 min when it took longer for the subjects to show some interest in the toy or to show play responses. The feeding sessions lasted between 15 and 25 s. In all experimental conditions if the data for a particular subject was not long enough to be included in the analyses the experimenter re-tried until the subject started to get more interested on the stimulus.

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If all efforts failed the data for the non-interested subject had to be discarded and the testing had to take place another day for this subject. It was placed approximately one meter away and in front of the subject aiming at capturing frontal shots and recorded under no direct sunlight.

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In addition, the subjects were simultaneously video-recorded with a regular camcorder JVC Everio. The experimenter stood no further than 1 meter away from the opposite sides of the enclosure mesh. Altogether 26 play, 16 teasing, and 30 feeding sessions were recorded on 2 days, in November and January For both days the test sessions started off with playing and feeding, followed by teasing. Between each test session a period of up to 5 min was allowed in order for the subjects face to return back to baseline values during which the experimenter was out of sight.

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No high-arousal interactions such as fights or sexual behaviors were observed during the testing and breaks. In order to collect an adequate amount of data in total four sessions took place, two for each day. The outdoor temperatures and the hours of the day were reported for play mean: 6. Temperature frames were extracted for each individual every 5 s.

In addition the mesh should not heavily obscure the regions of interest. Temperature data were extracted from four regions of interest based on the anatomical facial artery system of rhesus monkeys provided by Castelli and Huelke In extreme occasions where a region of interest was obscured by the mesh the next available frame was used. This does not affect the main statistical analyses as the development of the thermal al takes at the best-case scenario 10 s to ificantly change Ioannou et al. Stem and leaf plots were conducted prior to the main analyses to eliminate outliers across individuals.

In total temperature data points were extracted for analyses. To decide upon the main statistical analyses, conditions were examined for intrinsic inter-correlations using Spearman's rho Nakayama et al. Although ideally we would like for our predictors independent variables to be strongly related to our dependent variable we would not want our conditions to be related. Orthogonal contrasts protect against autocorrelation and are an excellent way of analyzing data to obtain main effects and comparisons between groups of means Doncaster and Davey, Contrasts involve linear combinations of group mean vectors instead of linear combinations of the variables.

For example in the case of the current experiment the first two conditions playing and teasing form the first contrast dyad, whereas the second contrast in this case feeding is compared with the two conditions Paying and Teasing forming the second and last comparison of the ANOVA. The same approach was followed in Ioannou et al. For each macaque the mean temperature value of each region of interest was calculated nose tip, maxillary, periorbital, nose bridge according to condition playing, teasing, No Strings Attached Sex Orlando.

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Mann—Whitney U -tests were also performed to assess for every subject if the facial temperatures ificantly differed across the conditions using orthogonal contrasts. These test were then used to evaluate how many subjects showed temperature changes that matched the group.

So for example in order to observe if all five subjects during the feeding phase had a temperature decrease a Mann—Whitney U -test was performed. This was conducted for every region of interest for each individual subject.

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Arteriograph representing the arterial vessels of face of a rhesus monkey Facial artery 1 ; superior labial 2 ; septal branch 3 ; lateral nasal branch 4 ; inferior palpebral branch 5 ; superior palpebral branch 6 ; supraorbital branch 7 ; parietal and frontal branches 8 Teichmann's paste injection, cleared preparation Castelli and Huelke, Thermogram representing the regions of interest, their positioning and the selected shape for temperature extraction. Behavioral data were obtained to control for temperature artifacts that may have resulted by changes in the intensity of movement and not by the applied experimental manipulation.

Bodily movements were coded as being either slow e. They were coded each second per session and then added to the extracted thermal values with identical times and sessions.

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Within-condition contrasts yielded a ificant temperature decrease for feeding compared to the preceding conditions [vs. Teasing and Feeding ], on the maxillary area, the nose bridge and tip as well as the orbital region. Illustration from a subject depicting the temperature across conditions playing, teasing, feeding.

for the first contrast Teasing vs.

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Playing were in agreement with the group analyses. For the maxillary area 2 subjects had a ificant increase and 2 a decrease, for the nose bridge 3 subjects showed a decrease compared to the condition, whereas for the nose tip 3 subjects had a decrease and 1 an increase. Finally for the peri-orbital region 4 subjects out of 5 had a ificant increase during teasing compared to the condition. The second contrast [Feeding vs. For the maxillary area all subjects had a ificant decrease, for the nose bridge 4 out of 5 showed a decrease, whereas for the nose tip 5 out of 5.

Clustered Bar Chart representing the temperature tendency for all monkeys in each condition contrast for the Mann—Whitney U -test.

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